Epidemiology of anal lesions (fissure and thrombosed external hemorroid) during pregnancy and post-partum

Posted on: June 8, 2015

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2003 Jun;31(6):546-9

L. Abramowitz a,*, A. Batallan ba Service de gastro-entérologie et Famya de coloproctologie, hôpital Bichat–Claude-Bernard, 46, rue Henri-Huchard, 75018 Paris, France b Service de gynécologie–obstétrique, hôpital Bichat–Claude-Bernard, 46, rue Henri-Huchard, 75018 Paris, France

Abstract: Thrombosed external hemorrhoids (TEH) and anal fissure (AF) are 2 frequent sources of anal pains during childbirth. We are going to define their incidences as available in publications and in our experience in Bichat hospital. Then we will define their risk factors. According to Martin’s and Corby’s studies. AF was observed in 10% of the delivered women. In Bichat hospital we performed a proctological assessment to 165 pregnant women during the last third of pregnancy and within the 2months following delivery. We observed 2AF (1,2%) during the first period and 25 (15,2%) during the second. Rouillon et al. reported an incidence of TEH in 12,2% (20/164), while Pradel and al. reported 34% (18/52) of it. In Bichat hospital, 13 women (7,9%) were presenting with TEH during the last third of pregnancy and 33 (20%) in post-partum period. Two studies looked for a statistical correlation between AF and obstetrical, foetal or maternal factors. Corby et al. only pointed the role of constipation. In our study, terminal constipation was the most important risk factor for AF with 5.7 (2.7–12), odds ratio (95% confidence intervals). Rouillon et al. observed more TEH among women with a prolonged first stage labor and a big baby. In our study, a big baby and mother little lips tears were observed more often among women with TEH (P <0,05). Also, we observed only one TEH among the 25 women with caesarean section (4%). Finally, observation that TEH arise immediately after delivery is another argument to support the role of traumatic delivery. We also demonstrated the role of terminal constipation as risk factor for TEH after delivery. To conclude, 1/3 of pregnant women develop AF or TEH after delivery. These 2 pathologies are strongly correlated to terminal constipation. TEH seems equally furthered by traumatic delivery.

Keywords: Anal fissure; Childbirth; Post-partum; Thrombosed external hemorrhoids